This blog is about Type 2 Diabetes, their causes, symptoms, and management. In my earlier blog, I shared information on Type-1 diabetes. Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that causes the sugar (glucose) in the blood to rise above the normal level. So far the medical experts have been unsuccessful in finding a cure for it. But with a proper diet and positive amendments in lifestyle, one can overcome the condition.
Several sportsmen and celebrities like Wasim Akram, Sonam Kapoor, Halle Berry, Dwayne Johnson and several well-known personalities are battling diabetes successfully. The crux is to diagnose the disorder early and to adopt a systematic approach to fight it.
What is Type-2 diabetes?
Type 2 diabetes is also called as ‘Insulin Resistant Diabetes” as the body does not utilize insulin efficiently. Initially, the pancreas produces extra insulin to make up for it. But, gradually the body cannot cope and make sufficient insulin to keep the glucose at a reasonable level. It is progressive disorder wherein the body becomes resistant to insulin generation. By the time an individual is diagnosed with Type-2 diabetes, they have lost 50 to 70% of insulin-producing hormones.
It usually occurs in adults over 45 years of age, but in recent years it has hit the younger generation including children and adolescents.
Causes of Type- 2 Diabetes
A person whose family runs a history of diabetes is prone to the metabolic dysfunction. Subsequently, lifestyle factors like obesity, stress, lack of physical activities, junk food and extra kilos around the waist add to your woes.
Individuals are subject to higher risk of Type 2 Diabetes if they
- Have a family history of diabetes
- Are at an advanced age of over 45 years
- Over 45 years of age and suffering from Hypertension
- 45 years of age and obese
- Lead a sedentary lifestyle
- A woman who gives birth to a child over 4.5 kgs or has been diagnosed with gestational diabetes during pregnancy
Symptoms of Type-2 diabetes
Sometimes a person with Type-2 diabetes may not display any symptoms which may aggravate further dangerously. However, there are few signs to watch out for like
- Excessive thirst
- Frequent passing of urine
- Skin cuts and infections that refuse to heal
- Feeling lethargic and fatigued
- Extreme hunger pangs
- Putting on weight gradually
- Severe mood swings and irritability
- Blurred vision
- Tingling or numbness feeling in the toes
Diagnoses of Type-2 Diabetes
To diagnose Type-2 diabetes, your doctor will recommend the following the test.
Fasting Blood Sugar Test:
Your blood samples will be collected early morning after an overnight fast. A normal sugar level will display less than 100 mg/dl and post lunch should be less than 140mg/dl. Any reading above this indicates that you have diabetes.
Random Plasma Glucose Test (RPG):
Sometimes your doctor may use RPG test that can be conducted at any time during the day. You need not wait overnight until the fasting period gets over. This test ensures that you get the readings instantly.
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT):
In this test, your doctor will draw your blood samples after the mandatory eight hour fasting period. Then you are given a glucose drink every two to three hours and blood sugar readings taken accordingly. High reading glucose levels at any two or more blood test during this period- mean you have gestational diabetes. The OGTT method is beneficial to diagnose Type 2 and pre-diabetes.
Glycated Hemoglobin (A1C) Test:
This blood test shows the average blood sugar level during the past two to three months. The idea is to measure the percentage of sugar attached to the oxygen-carrying protein in the red blood cell –hemoglobin. Higher the reading, the more sugar is attached to the haemoglobin. A level of 6.5% and more indicates that you have Type-2 Diabetes.
Treatment of Type-2 Diabetes
There is no cure for Diabetes. You will need to pay more significant attention to your diet comprising carbs, fibre, salt, and fat to manage your blood sugar. Follow the tips given below
- Eat food loaded with fibre like oats, fruits, and vegetables
- Intake of low-calorie food
- Avoid deeply fried and oily food
- Consume food cooked in olive, canola, peanut, and walnut oil.
- Eat at regular intervals.
Physical exercise is another component that needs attention to control Type 2 Diabetes. Exercise has several health benefits and helps to manage diabetes competently. You should aim to include three main kinds of physical activity –aerobic, strength training and flexibility. Try to add the following-
- Brisk Walking
- Outdoor sports like playing tennis, basketball, badminton, etc.
Hope this blog provides useful information about Type-2 diabetes. Kindly share if you agree.